Biomedical Instrumentation

  • Biomedical Instrumentation Engineering involves developing new devices and procedures that solve medical and health-related problems by combining their recent advances knowledge in engineering, biology, and medicine to improves human health.

  • Biomedical engineers may spend their days designing electrical circuits and computer software for medical instrumentation. These instruments may range from large imaging systems such as conventional x-ray, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, to small implantable devices, such as pacemakers, cochlear implants, drug infusion pumps.

  • Some of the Prominent biomedical applications include the development of various diagnostic and therapeutic medical devices ranging from common imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, regenerative tissue growth, pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic biologicals

Lecture Notes

UNIT 1

CellStructure, Basic Cell functions, Sources of Biomedical signals - resting and action potentials, Physiology of Cardiovascular, Nervous system & Respiratory system. Special senses:Auditory & Vision System, Engineering Analogy of Physiological system, Difficulties faced in measuring a living system.

 

UNIT 2

Biopotential electrodes, Electrode-electrolyte interface, Half-cell Potential, Electrodes-Micro, and needle and surface electrodes. Various biomedicaltransducers: Peripheral Pulse Measurement. Bio-signal Amplifiers - Differential amplifiers, Chopper amplifiers, Notch Filters (Second Order Notch Filter Design)- Electrical Safety of Medical Equipment and Patients.

 

UNIT 3

ECG–ECG Lead systems and recording methods - ECG analysis- EEG - Electrodes and Analysis- EMGMeasurement of bloodpressure-Cardiac output - Heart sounds - Types- Respiratory rate - Lung Volumes and Capacities Pneumotachography, Flow rate of CO2, O2 in exhaust air - pH of blood, GSR measurements- Plethysmography

 

UNIT 4

Ultrasound scannerX-Ray Imaging - Image Intensifiers - CAT / CT scan: Basic Principle, WorkingMRI ImagingPET scan. Basic elementsof a Biotelemetry system - Single / Multi channel Telemetry SystemsImplantedtransmitters - Telemedicine

 

UNIT 5

ElectrotherapyDiathermy: Shortwave, microwave and Ultrasonic – Pacemakers - Defibrillators – Heart Lung Machine - Audiometry - Hearing aidDialysis machine-Ventilators basics - Servo controlled positive pressure ventilators-Endoscopes.

 

EXTRAS

References

  1. John G. Webster, Medical Instrumentation Application and Design, Wiley India Pvt. Limited, 4th Edition (2010)

  2. Cromwell Leslie, Weibell Fred J., Pfeiffer Eric A, "Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements", PHI; 2 edition (1990)

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©2019 by B. E. Hemakumar