Scope of this Course
Instrumental methods of chemical analysis have become the principal means of obtaining information in diverse areas of science and technology. The speed, high sensitivity, low limits of detection, simultaneous detection capabilities, and automated operation of modern instruments, when compared to classical methods of analysis, have created this predominance. Professionals in all sciences base important decisions, solve problems, and advance their fields using instrumental measurements. As a consequence, all scientists are obligated to have a fundamental understanding of instruments and their applications in order to confidently and accurately address their needs.
Analytical instruments are used in a variety of fields, given their cross-discipline compatibility to analyze samples. Analytical instruments are used not only in the laboratory environment, but also on the field. They include, but are not limited to the following areas:
Food & Beverage Analysis
Life Science Research (e.g. metabolomics, genomics, proteomics)
Materials Characterization and Research
UNIT I – SPECTROSCOPY
Electromagnetic radiation - Electromagnetic spectrum- Spectral methods of analysis. Absorption spectroscopy – Emission Spectroscopy – Beer Lamberts Law.
UV – Visible spectrophotometers – Single beam and double beam instruments – Sources and detectors. IR spectrophotometers – Sources and detectors – FTIR spectrometers – Raman Spectrometers
UNIT II – FLAME, NMR & MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPY
Flame emission spectrometry – Atomic absorption spectrometry - NMR,ESR / EPR spectroscopy – basic principles – NMR instrumentation techniques and applications.
UNIT III – MASS SPECTROMETERS & RADIATION MEASUREMENT
Ion sources – Types: Magnetic Deflection – Time of Flight – Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers - single focusing and double focusing mass spectrometers – principles and application
Ionization chamber - Proportional counter – GM counter - scintillation counter - solid state detector - Gamma ray spectrometers Isotope Dilution Analysis
UNIT IV - CHROMOTOGRAPHY
Gas chromatography – Methods of analysis in gas chromatography - Column details Detectors: Thermal conductivity detectors- Flame ionization detectors - Flame photometric detectors - Electron capture detectors - Effect of temperature.
Liquid chromatography – Pre column - Separation column - Detectors - HPLC -High pressure liquid chromatography.Normal phase vs reverse phase HPLC
UNIT V - ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION MONITORING INSTRUMENTS
Introduction to air and water pollution – primary and secondary pollutants - Conductivity and water purity meters – Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur dioxide, Hydrogen Sulphide & NO monitors – oxygen analyzers.