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©2019 by B. E. Hemakumar

Analytical Instruments

Scope of this Course

Instrumental methods of chemical analysis have become the principal means of obtaining information in diverse areas of science and technology. The speed, high sensitivity, low limits of detection, simultaneous detection capabilities, and automated operation of modern instruments, when compared to classical methods of analysis, have created this predominance. Professionals in all sciences base important decisions, solve problems, and advance their fields using instrumental measurements. As a consequence, all scientists are obligated to have a fundamental understanding of instruments and their applications in order to confidently and accurately address their needs.

Analytical instruments are used in a variety of fields, given their cross-discipline compatibility to analyze samples. Analytical instruments are used not only in the laboratory environment, but also on the field. They include, but are not limited to the following areas:

  • Analytical Chemistry

  • Clinical Analysis

  • Environmental Testing

  • Food & Beverage Analysis

  • Forensic Analysis

  • Life Science Research (e.g. metabolomics, genomics, proteomics)

  • Materials Characterization and Research

  • Petrochemical Testing

  • Pharmaceutical Analysis

  • And more!

Syllabus

Regulations 2014-15

Lecture Notes

UNIT I – SPECTROSCOPY

Electromagnetic radiation - Electromagnetic spectrum- Spectral methods of analysis. Absorption spectroscopy – Emission SpectroscopyBeer Lamberts Law.

UV – Visible spectrophotometers – Single beam and double beam instruments – Sources and detectors. IR spectrophotometers – Sources and detectorsFTIR spectrometers – Raman Spectrometers

 

UNIT II – FLAME, NMR & MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPY

Flame emission spectrometry – Atomic absorption spectrometry - NMR,ESR / EPR spectroscopy – basic principlesNMR instrumentation techniques and applications.

 

UNIT III – MASS SPECTROMETERS & RADIATION MEASUREMENT

Ion sources – Types: Magnetic Deflection – Time of Flight – Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers - single focusing and double focusing mass spectrometers – principles and application

Ionization chamber - Proportional counter – GM counter - scintillation counter - solid state detector - Gamma ray spectrometers Isotope Dilution Analysis

 

UNIT IV - CHROMOTOGRAPHY

Gas chromatography – Methods of analysis in gas chromatography - Column details Detectors: Thermal conductivity detectors- Flame ionization detectors - Flame photometric detectors - Electron capture detectors - Effect of temperature.

Liquid chromatography – Pre column - Separation column - Detectors - HPLC -High pressure liquid chromatography.Normal phase vs reverse phase HPLC

 

UNIT V - ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION MONITORING INSTRUMENTS

Introduction to air and water pollution – primary and secondary pollutants - Conductivity and water purity meters – Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur dioxide, Hydrogen Sulphide & NO monitors – oxygen analyzers.

 

Additional Information:

1. Absorption and emission

2. Optical Filters

3. CO Monitoring